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大鲵
2012-02-23 14:33:57  作者:  来源:网络  浏览次数:433  文字大小:【】【】【

大 鲵  Andrias davidianus
英 文 名 Chinese Giant Salamander
分类地位: 有尾目(Caudata) 隐鳃鲵科(Cryptobranchidae)
濒危等级: CITES附录 II
                      IUCN物种红色名录 CR(极危) 
                      中国物种红色名录 CR(极危)
                      国家二级重点保护

形态特征:现存体型最大的两栖动物,体长100厘米左右;尾长为体长的二分之一。成体体重一般10-20千克;最大者体长可达近200厘米,体重40千克以上。雄性略大于雌性。头部和躯干部扁平,尾侧扁。体侧有皮肤褶。指四,趾五。体色以棕色为主,随环境有变化。

生活习性:栖息于海拔200-1000米热带和亚热带的石灰岩常绿林区水温低而清澈的溪河中。成体单独活动,白天于洞穴中藏匿,夜出觅食。主要捕食鱼、蟹、蛙、昆虫等水生动物。夏季繁殖,产卵数百至上千枚,有护卵习性。其叫声似孩啼,故俗称“娃娃鱼”。

分布区域:中国特产。主要分布于长江、黄河和珠江中上游支流中,遍及华南、华中、华东、西南地区,华北和西北部分区域也有分布纪录(见封底分布图)。

威胁因素:传统认为大鲵肉味鲜美,捕捞为主要威胁因素,此外是生境破坏。

保护状况:各省分布区域均建立有保护区。

Physical Features: The Chinese giant salamander is the largest in present amphibians, and has a head and body length about 100cm. Tail length is about a half of body. It can grow up to 200 cm long and 40kg weight. Brown is its main body color, with some changes in different environments.

Living Habits: It solely inhabits in the evergreen forest rivers of limestone regions in subtropical zone of China, and feeds on fishes, crabs, frogs and insects. Summer is its breeding season. This amphibian sounds like baby’s cry, for which “wawa yu”(“baby fish” in english) of Chinese name is depicted to the species.

Distribution: The animal is an aboriginal species, and distributes in wide area of central, eastern, southern lands of China (see the map on back cover).

Threats to Survival: Over-hunting and habitats destruction are the main threats in China.

Conservation: Many reservers have been established in its ranges.

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